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THE LIFE, TIMES AND WORKS OF

FEDERICO GARCIA LORCA:

A CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS

IV: 1935 & 1936

1935

LIFE, TIMES, AND WORKS

January 1935:

Collaboration in the staging of Lope de Vega’s Peribañez y el comendador de Ocaña at the Club Anfistora, Madrid.

9 February:

Signs antifascist manifesto.

11 February:

Bitter Oleander (Bodas de Sangre) opens in New York.

12 March:

first public reading of Llanto por Ignacio Sánchez Mejías. (At the 100th performance of Yerma in Madrid.)

15 March:

Tierra y luna published in El tiempo presente (Madrid).

21 April:

After 120 performances, Yerma closes in Madrid.

6 May:

Gil-Robles is made Minister of Defence and appoints Francisco Franco as head of the Armed Forces.

May:

Finishes Doña Rosita...

23 May:

Llanto published (with Seis poemas galegas) by the magazine Cruz y Raya .

14 June:

Homage to Pablo Neruda for his book of poems Residencia en la Tierra.

June :

Nerudo publishes his Oda a Federico García Lorca.

Summer:

Working on Poeta en Nueva York .

August:

types Poeta en Nueva York, intending to edit it in October.

19 August:

La Barraca summer tour opens in Santander.

25 August:

Margarita Xirgú performs Fuenteovejuna in Fuenteovejuna to commemorate the third centenery of Lope de Vega.

September:

Yerma opens in Barcelona. Reads Doña Rosita... to Margarita Xirgú.

Yerma opens in Valencia.

28 September:

Lorca fails to appear at a concert in his honour in Barcelona. He has gone to Tarragona (Catalonia) for whatr will be his last meeting (and reconciliation) with Salvador Dalí.

Autumn:

Lorca resigns as artistic director of La Barraca.

Italian invasion of Abyssinia.

10 November.

Flies to Valencia to catch the last night of Xirgú’s Yerma.

A few days later, Lorca writes the first of what will be known as the Sonetos del amor oscuro, for Rafael Rodtríguez Rapún: El soneto de la carta and El poeta dice su verdad.

12 December:

First performance of Doña Rosita in Barcelona.

Lorca & Neduda/Lorca & Rapun/Yerma/Franco

1936

LIFE, TIMES, AND WORKS

January 1936:

Participates in homage to Rafael Alberti and María Teresa León.

15 January.

The Popular Front is formed in preparation for the forthcoming General Elections.

21 January:

Bodas de Sangre published.

28 January:

Primeras Canciones (mostly written in 1922) published.

February:

Yerma, performed by Margarita Xirgú’s theatre company, opens in La Habana, Cuba.

16 February:

Popular Front victory at Spanish General Elections.

8 March:

mass meeting of Republicans at Granada football stadium, addressed by Fernando de los Ríos; followed by fascist reprisals.

10 March:

General Strike in Granada; among other buildings, the “reds” set fire to the Falange HQ, the Isabel la Católica theatre, the Colón and Royal cafés, the Ideal newspaper, and the El Salvador church.

14 March:

The Falange is banned; José Antonio Primo de Rivera is jailed.

31 March:

Granada general election results annulled due to manipulations by right wing.

1 April:

He signs a petition demanding the release from prison of Brazilian communist and workers’ leader Carlos Prestes.

5 April:

Gives a radio talk on Semana Santa en Granada, in which he describes the procession of la santa María de la Alhambra, which he himself had taken part in seven years earlier, as “affected/schmaltzy” (cursi).

Yerma opens in Mexico.

1 May:

Greetings to Spanish workers in ¡Ayuda! magazine of Socorro Rojo.

3 May:

Re-election in Granada; the Right abstains.

May:

Participation in the Popular Front homage to the French writers André Malraux, Jean Cassou and Henri Lenormand.

10 June:

Interview with Bagaría published in Sol newspaper. Lorca suppresses his comments on fascism and communism, as his views are already known, but describes Granada’s bourgeoisie as “the worst in Spain”.

June:

reads Casa de Bernarda Alba to friends (Dámaso Alonso, Jorge Guillén and Guillermo de la Torre) in Madrid. Has written the first act of Los sueños de mi prima Aurelia. Suerña de la vida (Comedia sin título) is also near completion.

June-July:

Rehearsals for Así que pasen cinco años at Pura Ucelay’s Club Anfistora interrupted by outbreak of Civil War.

July:

Signs manifesto against the Portuguese dictator Salazar.

10 July:

Lorca’s brother-in-law Manuel Fernandez-Montesinos is elected socialist Mayor of Granada.

12 July:

Assassination of Calvo Sotelo (right-wing leader while Primo de Rivera is in prison).

13 July:

Spends his last day in Madrid with Rafael Martínez Nadal. Before catching the night train to Granada, he gives him a copy of El Público, asking him to destroy it if anything happens to him.

Leaves manuscript of Bernarda Alba at the offices of Cruz y Raya in Madrid.

17 July:

Franco’s military uprising in Africa.

18 July:

His and his father’s saint’s day.

20 July:

Military rebellion spreads to Granada. Lorca’s brother-in-law Manuel Fernández-Montesinos, mayor of Granada since 10 July, is arrested in his office at the Town Hall.

23 July:

Opposition to the military coup in Granada is defeated.

9 August:

After being mishandled by a group of armed men at the Huerta de San Vicente, Lorca realises he himself is in danger and seeks refuge in the house of his friend Luis Rosales, whose family are predominantly Falangists.

16 August:

Manuel Fernandez-Montesinos, along with 29 other victims, is lined up against the cemetery wall in Granada and shot.

Lorca is arrested by Ramón Ruiz Alonso and taken to the nearby Civil Goverment building.

17 August:

Is disappeared from the Civil Government building.

19 August:

Executed on the roadside outside Viznar, alongside the schoolmaster Dióscoro Galindo and the anarchist bullfighters known as Cabezas and Galadí.

The first reference to the alleged death of Jacinto Benavente (1866-1954), which is used to “justify” Lorca’s murder, appeared in the Correo de Andalusía, a newspaper controlled by Queipo de Llano. On the night of the 20th Queipo spread the false news story in his radio broadcast

LEFT: Aynadamar - the Fountain of Tears.

ABOVE: Vote for the Popular Front.

RIGHT: Lorca's 'Assassination' imagined